Warrior of Love
An unlikely champion of moderate Islam.
by Daveed Gartenstein-Ross
11/15/2006 12:00:00 AM
A ROCK STAR WOULD BE the last person one might expect to address a
major defense policy conference. Yet the National Homeland Defense
Foundation Symposium, held on October 3 in Colorado Springs, welcomed
such a guest: thirty-four-year-old Ahmad Dhani.
Dhani is nothing short of a superstar in his native Indonesia, where
he performs to sold-out crowds with his band Dewa 19, and where his
music has defined a generation of young Indonesians. Frequently compared
to U2 frontman Bono, Dhani and his band's music took a political turn
two years ago. Since dictator Suharto was ousted from power in 1998, the
country has been engaged in a high-stakes "culture war": Islamic
political movements have been able to operate more freely, and extremist
groups like Hizb ut-Tahrir and the Islamic Defenders Front have been
pushing for the adoption of sharia law. Indonesia has been
plagued by major terror attacks in Jakarta and Bali, and by religious
and communal violence, such as
clashes between Muslims and Christians
in early 1999. Dhani and his group, like many urbanites, were alarmed by
these developments. They decided to use their music to respond to the
hateful ideology that has been seducing so many Indonesian youths.
One of the largest groups responsible for the escalation of violence
in 1999 was Laskar Jihad ("Warriors of Jihad"), a violent militia that
was led by Jafar Umar Thalib, a veteran of the Afghan jihad who claims
to have met Osama bin Laden. When a fight between a Christian bus driver
and a Muslim passenger who refused to pay his fare escalated into
communal violence on the Maluku Islands in January 1999, Thalib's
militia shipped thousands of fighters into the region by boat to "wage
jihad." The conflict lasted three years; an estimated 10,000 people
perished on the island of Ambon alone, and around half a million
Indonesians were driven from their homes. For its central role in the
crisis, Laskar Jihad became, according to former Indonesian president
Abdurrahman Wahid and American philanthropist C. Holland Taylor, "a
symbol and a byword for the suffering inflected upon that region." So it
is fitting that, in turning toward political involvement, Dhani
referenced the radical group in the title of Dewa's November 2004 album.
It was called Laskar Cinta, Warriors of Love.
The Laskar Cinta album was designed to provide Indonesian
youth with a choice between joining the army of jihad and joining
Dhani's army of love. It sold hundreds of thousands of copies and became
fodder for the Islamic Defenders Front, the most vocal radical group in
Indonesia today, which accused Dhani of being an apostate and a Zionist
agent. These attacks seem to have backfired, however. Nick Grace, a
Washington, D.C.-based Indonesian-language political commentator, said
that the attacks on Dhani and a lawsuit that accused him of defaming
Islam only served to make him more prominent. Dhani's message was
juxtaposed with that of the radical groups on entertainment and
celebrity gossip television programs.
This year, Dhani followed his 2004 effort with a new album,
Republik Cinta ("Republic of Love"). One of the new songs on the
album is called Laskar Cinta. Although some listeners may be
confused that the song bears the same name as Dewa's previous album,
told the Indonesian edition of Rolling Stone that this isn't
an uncommon practice. He proudly noted that his favorite band, Queen,
also did this.
is an innovative song, designed as a "musical fatwa" against extremism.
The lyrics reflect Dhani's Sufi faith: they are inspired by the Qur'an
and ahadith (the sayings attributed to Prophet Muhammad) with the
intention of rebutting the hateful ideology that inspires Islamic
terror. There is even an annotated version of the song online that makes
the theological inspiration behind the verses explicit. And it has found
an audience: Laskar Cinta became the No. 1 song in Indonesia
shortly after its release, while its music video reached the top spot on
MTV Asia's popular Indonesian- and Malay-language Ampuh program.
DHANI IS AN UNLIKELY PERSON to emerge as a major cultural figure
trumpeting a peaceful vision of the Islamic faith. A Wall Street
profile on Dhani published in mid-August notes that his grandfather
"participated in the Daru Islam Islamist guerilla movement, which
counted among its members the terrorist group leader who plotted the
Bali bombings a few years ago. Dhani's father, Eddy, followed in his
father's footsteps, figuring prominently in an organization bent on
In an interview conducted for this article, Dhani described his
father as "an Islamic fundamentalist," and said that this led him to
send Dhani to a Wahhabi school as a young man "because he wanted his son
to have a sound perspective." Dhani attended this school for about six
years. Despite a strict upbringing at home and in school, Dhani began
playing music when he was about six years old. Many conservative schools
of Islamic thought consider music to be haram, or prohibited by
Islamic law, and Dhani told me that he was exposed to these teachings.
He noted, though, that he was never told that it was a crime to play
music, just haram.
Dhani felt destined to play music. His mother Joyce, a convert from
Roman Catholicism to Islam, was a musician and exposed him to music from
a young age. Dhani states that music is the one thing that has
consistently given him joy: "Music is the only thing that makes me have
fun. I don't like to do anything besides music. I don't like riding
bicycles or motorcycles; I don't like other things but music." So Dhani
joined his first band in 1987, when he was still a teenager.
Yet even as a musician--and even after becoming a superstar in
Indonesia--Dhani describes himself as continuing to hold very intolerant
views. He voted for a conservative Islamic political party when he
became old enough to vote, and despised those who didn't vote the same
way. He in fact describes himself as "an embryonic radical Muslim"
during this period.
When Dhani was in his mid-twenties, however, his outlook began to
change. A major factor in his transformation was his exposure to Sufism.
Although Sufism isn't universally known for being peaceful, it is often
described in the terms that Dhani has used for it: "Sufism is the inner,
spiritual dimension of Islam that focuses not on what separates people
from one another or God; but rather, on what unites us. Sufi Islam
teaches Muslims to love and respect all of God's creatures, and not to
unnecessarily harm anyone."
It was changing from a fundamentalist outlook to a Sufi outlook that
made Dhani more tolerant of religious and cultural differences--and,
ultimately, this changed outlook transformed him into a cultural warrior
battling against hatred and extremism.
DHANI ISN'T THE ONLY FIGURE in Indonesia's entertainment industry to
take a stand against the country's growing extremist sentiment. Another
Indonesian to take a stand is
film director Joko Anwar, who is currently working on a film called
Dead Time, which aims to subtly criticize efforts to establish
sharia law. Anwar also challenged some of Indonesia's conservative
mores as screenwriter for the 2003 comedy Arisan!, which swept
the national and international film awards and has been spun off into
Indonesia's top-rated TV sitcom. Upon learning that the ban of on-screen
kissing in Indonesia only applied to kisses between a man and woman,
Anwar refashioned the script to center the movie around a likable gay
protagonist. The resulting same-sex kissing scenes became a national
sensation, with celebrities jokingly declaring they were gay as a
And dangdut music sensation Inul Daratista's suggestive
"grinding" style of dance has gotten her banned from several
Muslim-dominated towns and condemned by the Indonesian Ulemas Council.
She has been openly supportive of liberal Indonesian political parties.
But unlike Anwar and Daratista, Dhani's message is explicitly
religious. This is reflected not only in his music, but also in his
public pronouncements. Asked at the defense policy conference what can
be done to help bridge the gulf between Islam and the West, Dhani
replied that people in the West need to respect Islam: not to respect
radical Islam or the ideology of al-Qaeda, but to respect the faith
itself. Dhani said that it isn't just a matter of voicing respect for
Islam, but that Westerners should actually feel this respect in their
hearts because that language of love and respect will ultimately be
communicated back to the Muslim community.
Al-Husein Madhany, executive editor of
Islamica Magazine, says that the religious element of Dhani's
message should not be ignored. "If mainstream Muslims do not engage in
religious rhetoric," he warns, "there's no way to engage the youth. What
we've seen is that those who are successful in engaging the youth and
are making an argument with religious rhetoric--with the Qur'an, the
ahadith, and sheikhs backing them up--are the ones winning the
Madhany says that the fact that Dhani is a recording artist is also
significant. He states that the arts are important because they engage
the local culture, and also engage identity on multiple levels. "When
you have an artist doing that and he's selling a million records, we
need to take note of that and try to replicate it in other contexts,
including in America," Madhany says. "It's the youth who are being
attracted to extremism, and the way they're being attracted to it is
through religious rhetoric. We need to come up with a creative counter
to that, and I think this is one good example."
DHANI HAS BEEN ACTIVELY trying to engage the youth, and offer them a
religious alternative to extremism. He has expressed his vision for
change: "My hope is that in the future, Dewa's fans--who are primarily
young and not yet contaminated by extremist ideology and
intolerance--will grow up to be more tolerant than the present
generation and break the cycle of hatred that has begun to plague our
Dhani's vision clearly merits his inclusion at the defense policy
conference in Colorado Springs. How to foster a more moderate Islam is
one of the critical questions of the war on terror to which, at present,
there are few compelling answers. At the end of the day, the rock
musician from Indonesia may have had more wisdom to impart than most of
the other speakers.
Daveed Gartenstein-Ross is a senior consultant for the Gerard
Group International and author of the forthcoming book
My Year Inside Radical Islam (Tarcher/Penguin).
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